(ii) Organic and Sustainable Agriculture with small and marginal farmers:

Food production was increased tremendously after green revolution. As majority of the people involved in agriculture are either illiterate or poorly literate. They started to use the water, chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides etc. excessively. As a result, the nutrition of food items has decreased. This also decreased the fertility of the land on one hand and increased the cost of production on the other and eventually agriculture became a non- profitable occupation. For decreasing the cost of production, the landlords started to use big machines like tractors and harvesters in place of laborers which caused unemployment of agricultural laborers and eventually migration of young agricultural laborers at large scale.

Agriculture was considered sustainable livelihood as it was not done alone. It included animals, trees and mixed crops. Sugarcane and few other crops were grown as cash crops. This type of agriculture stopped after green revolution which affected mainly small and marginal farmers and agriculture laborers. The reason of increased production cost is plantation of single crop and competition in production which includes excessive use of machines, expensive seeds, various types of new weeds, expensive pesticides and insecticides and excessive use of water for irrigation. Keeping above in mind, a method has been developed to include scientific methods in traditional method of agriculture which includes skill development of small and marginal farmers. Through this program farmers are imparted knowledge and training of production by using organic fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. They are provided trainingto increase their production capacity by using natural resources and reducing the production cost. This work has been started in Gorakhpur, Maharajganj and Kushinagar districts.

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